The inference

Среда, 28 Ноя 2012, 16:30 | Рубрика: How to validate a characteristic countenance

In the previous heads you were acquainted with the typical expressions of emotions mapping on the person pleasure, surprise, pavor, anger, disgust and grief. You also have seen many commixed countenances combining any two from these emotions. Methods of usage of countenances for arrangement of "punctuation marks" have been demonstrated during lecture which one allow to select any words; some other types of reports transmitted by the person have been considered. Reading of this book and learning of photographs should refine your understanding of countenances. If you carry out of the job on "construction" of countenances and review of photographs (which one are given in the end of heads), and also will analyze and value photographs of new faces (chapter 9) it is is quite interquartile that your knowledge will be conversed to practical skills which one become a part you, – what you can use automatically. For further development of these practical skills it will be useful for you to watch of people but so that thus not to hear their words. For example, you can view telecasts with a dead sound (without risking to be demonstrated ill-bred). Some hours of such practice can refine your understanding of expressions of a human face considerably.

Reading of heads in which one we have featured experience of experience of six emotions, will help you to perceive better emotion of people and not to be restricted only to knowledge of how these emotions are displayed on the person. You can compare explanations of dynamics of expression of each emotion to your characteristic emotional experience more to learn about the feels. For example, a leah use all of you trajectories to pleasure reaching? What of origins of your anger is most typical for you? You are afraid of what emotions most of all? You enjoy what negative emotions?

In the head about bastard countenances speaks, why people check themselves and as they make it. In it specific methods of recognition of characters of control by the person performed by means of a modulation and falsification of expressions originating on the person explicitly are considered. Symptoms of a fraud behaviour and information leakage radiants about emotions also are considered explicitly enough. Do not forget that you cannot use this information if will be restricted only to learning of photographs in chapters 1 of the book and will not work out real skills of recognition of countenances by means of recommended practical exercises. In the end of chapter 10 speaks, on what you should pay attention to perceive, the person controls the person or not.

The final chapter is devoted how you can use the own person. In it eight miscellaneous styles of expression of emotions are featured. The knowledge of these styles can help to perceive better to you other people, and, if you fulfil all recommended activities at three featured stages (photographing, the assaying of photographs, operation with a mirror), that, was possiblly, learn about expressions of the person a lot of the interesting.

Certainly, the in itself knowledge of that someone feels another or is felt by you, does not point to you trajectories of usage of this information. Was possiblly, you will be not always glad to know that other person (specially if he does not want that you knew it) feels. The understanding of that other person feels, does not mean that you without fail use this knowledge. For example, when someone checks the anger, and you are capable it to discover, that, admitted to the person it, you can cause in it a rage attack. Depending on a situation, your knowledge can be for you either advisable, or undesirable. «Get rid of all it!» – Such words can benefit or injury at any emotion. All depends on you, from other person, from a situation, from your ratios, from retention at both of you interest in appearance of blanket sense and Is etc. possible that recognition of the anger concealed by other person, will appear very useful – the person can restrain flashout of the anger and tell to you that has led up it to such level of a boring.

We created this book proceeding from the assumption that, underlying scientific and generally any intellectual activity, – guesses that the extension of knowledge benefits. We believe that it and that the extension of your knowledge of countenances and about emotions will appear for you useful. You should think of how to apply this knowledge. But anyway learning of human faces has caused us to undertake writing of this book – after all persons of people are perfect.

[1] See, for example: Paul Ekman, V. Friesen, Phoebe Ellsworth. Emotion in the Human Face. Elmsford, New York: Pergamon Press, 1972. Represents the critical survey and generalisation of effects of the quantitative probes of expressions of the human face led for last fifty with superfluous years. Yields answers to seven main problems, interesting explorers, suggests directions and methods of implementation of new probes.

[2] Charles Darwin. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. London: John Murray, 1872. Basic operation on learning of countenances in which one Darwin has stated the overseeing by expressions of emotions at animals and on persons of children, blind and quoters of various crops.

[3] Carroll E Izard. The Face of Emotion. New York: Appleton–Century–Crofts, 1971. This historical survey of theories of emotions is used and for the presentation of the characteristic theory of the author grounded appreciably on operations by Tomkinsa and learning of differences between crops, and the probes led among children. To implication of emotions on the person only insignificant attention is paid.

[4] Paul Ekman, V. Friesen. Facial Action Coding–System. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1978. The atlas with photographs and frames of the filmings, allowing to learn to metre and value countenances. This issuing is intended  for professional explorers.

[5] Ernst Huber. Evolution of Facial Musculature and Facial Expression. Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1931. Reasonings  of the anatomist on change of aircraft attitude of a front musculation – from the lowest vertebrates and to primacies. The special attention is converted on differences of a front musculation at miscellaneous genetic bunches of people and on expressions of emotions.

[6] Robert Plutchik. The Emotions, New York: Random House, 1962. One more historical survey of theories of emotions; in this book the characteristic theory of the author and the probes fulfilled for its confirmation are introduced. Only insignificant  attention is given to a problem on how emotions on the person are displayed.

[7] Sylvan S. Tomkins. Affect, Imagery, Consciousness, vols. I and II, New York: Springer Publishing Co., 1962,1963. The extraordinary, difficult and charming theory underlining relevance of emotion in psychology of human behaviour.

[8] Carl–Herman Hjortjo. Man’s Face and Mimic Language. Studentliterature, Lund, Sweden, 1970. This known anatomist features a musculation of the person and the specific motions of muscles associated with emotions. The pictures of the person demonstrating both driving of muscles, and changes in appearance of a surface of the person are reduced.

[9] «Henry V», the act 3, a scene 1. E.Birukovoj’s recalculation.

[10] It is reduced on: S Darwin.
The expressions of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965.

Evaluation stages of your style of expression of emotions on the person

Вторник, 20 Ноя 2012, 17:34 | Рубрика: How to validate a characteristic countenance

Stage maiden: photographing of the person

Fourteen photographs of your person, made according to following demands will be necessary for you:

 Photographs demonstrate your person completely; they are made at good lighting; all photographs accurate also have about an equal size.

 On two snapshots you do not test any emotions, and on each of six remaining pairs of snapshots you are demonstrated testing surprise, pavor, anger, disgust, grief and pleasure.

 In each photograph you test only one emotion, instead of a speed key of two.

 You do not test awkwardness or confusion at photographing of your person; it is desirable, that you did not know, during what moment filming is performed.

It is improbable that the similar dial-up of photographs already is available for you (but if it so at once transfer to the second stage). The problem consists in how it to gain. If you transited course «recognition of emotions on the person», we could use special scenes to achieve your response to activities of various characters. In the absence of such capability we can tender other, satisfactory enough methods. At first we will acquaint you with gears, and then and with the routines, helping to endure each of six emotions.

The workmate who will photograph you is required to you. It is desirable, that it there was a person at which one presence you can be relaxed. Your confusion or fear of will be the main hindrance at this stage that on snapshots at you the silly person will be gained. You will accept any camera, allowing to make snapshots from spacing interval in 75 sm or less so that your person occupied not less a frame one-third. Optimum alternative is camera "»«½áÓ«¿ñ", but the customary camera will approach also.

Let your workmate will instal the camera on a mount and if you do not have mount let it will sit on a chair opposite to you. Ensure sharpness of induction at the greatest possible your approach to a lens. Your workmate should make all snapshots, holding down the camera at level of your head – not above and not more low to gain a composite image of your person. It is possible to make filmings both indoors, and in the street, but it is necessary to track that the sun did not shine to you in eyes. For camera setting use a mount or a chair and make all snapshots from equal spacing interval.

Cut from the book page 267. You have the table in which one it is necessary to bring indispensable tracings and at this stage, and on the following. As you should make more than one photograph and to worry more than one emotion it is necessary to record everything that you tried to make at obtaining of each snapshot; these tracings will add your photographs. If you use camera "»«½áÓ«¿ñ" will make it easy because you can record row number of the table on the back of each snapshot received by you. If you use the customary camera you can easily spot the order of layout of the finished shooting frames and to record table row number in the stomatic photograph applicable to it.

Before to begin operation, agree with the workmate with a cue of your availability; was relevant that it has made a snapshot on your team (it is possible to hoist hill up an index finger any cue which one will not entail any changes on the person, however, will approach). Take a core, the table cut from the book and start to work.

To make a snapshot of the maiden type absolutely easy. Try to photograph the person when it will look absolutely neutral, not expressing any emotions. It should be to similar persons Patricia and John on fig. 5А and fig. 13А. Look endways in a lens, try not to think of what and anything to feel. Try to be relaxed including to relax the person. When you will experience that have attained a neutral state, give an agreed cue. Then record in line 1 word "neutral" and mark, how much well, in your judgement, you have mirrored the state in the person. Make at least one more snapshot of the neutral person. Each time record an estimate of the gained frame. When you will see two snapshots on which one your person, on your interior feel, will be neutral, it is possible to cease photographing. Was relevant that thus you did not use a mirror. Your impression about that, how much well you make the neutral person, should be grounded on feel of how you endure this state from inside. For the same reason, if you use camera "Polaroid", do not view snapshots right after their obtaining. Oppose to this tempting until conclude filmings. We will resemble, was very relevant to record and trace numbers of receivable snapshots. Do not allow the workmate to value or comment on your countenances. Making these neutral snapshots and snapshots with expressions of six emotions, are aimed to that your estimates were grounded on your senses, instead of on judgement of the workmate.

Now try to express each of six emotions. There are some methods to make it, but for reaching of desirable effect you should display patience. The maiden method consists in folding eyes and to try to recall maximum brightly the recent event which has caused you to worry that emotion which one you try to figure. Or you can try to recall and endure the moment of your life when you tested this emotion with the greatest force. But anyway try to be diped in this experience. Try to experience emotion from inside: in your breath and your palpitation, on your skin and on your person. When you will experience it with the greatest possible force – when the sense will capture you bodily, – unclose eyes and, having felt that emotion was mirrored in your person, yield the workmate a character to make a snapshot. After each snapshot mark in the table that you tried to experience and how much, in your judgement, you managed to worry and express the yielded emotion.

Routine of experience of emotions can not approach for any one emotion or even for all six. All depends on you – how much well you anew endure recalled feels, how much awkwardly you feel, you are how much persevering in the tryings and etc. For those emotions which one to you did not manage to be caused, try to imagine  that could happen in your life to cause you to test them more clearly. Give vent to the imagination and then try to deliver itself in such imaginary situation. Let your sense will capture you bodily that you have felt as its skew field and the person.

If you cannot recall anything approaching in the past and cannot imagine any situation, try to re-read the previous chapters, to be exact those parts of heads in whom we spoke about experience of emotions. Some people discover that it helps them to endure each featured emotion. If it approaches you, try to boost endured sense. Or be converted to any of the examples given in each of heads, and observe, a leah will help it to you, but thus do not look at the photographs demonstrated in these heads.

If you managed to make on two snapshots for each emotion really endured by you from inside, and you consider that these emotions were mirrored in your person photographing can be concluded. But if you as before do not manage to make snapshots of any emotions, you can use one more method. Forget about experience, imagination or different ways of making of feel and concentrate simply on giving to the person of the applicable expression. Try to mirror emotion in the person, proceeding from feel of your front muscles. You can discover that usage of this method causes you to feel emotion from inside. If it really happens, shut down process, dare to feel emotion and to mirror it. Using this routine, make on two snapshots for each emotion which one as you have experienced, have been mirrored in your person.

By this moment in your table in each enumerated line should be recorded: that you tried to make, how much, on your feels, it was possible to you. Using any of these methods – repeated experience, imagination and giving to the person of the necessary expression, – you have managed to gain on two photographs for each emotion. But if you do not have photographs of one or two emotions, make new trying or transfer to a following stage that at you was gained. If you do not have successful, in your judgement, snapshots, that, was interquartile, you are utaivatelem or very timid person, the following stage will not bring to you favour, therefore it is better to transfer at once to a stage of operation with a mirror.

Stage second: the assaying of photographs

So, you have before yourselves a dial-up of photographs. On the back of each of them you have written the number corresponding to the number of tracing in your table. Further it is necessary to resort to the help three-four people, and it is even better than ten which one will appear in a role of the experts valuing your photographs. It is desirable, that they were not your close friends (or near relations) because the close people can know your idiosyncrasies which one at present we do not learn. In the event that you made snapshots of the workmate you can demonstrate experts both dial-ups of photographs. If your experts cannot initiate with accomplishment of this job simultaneously it is quite admissible but until comparing of estimates of experts before end of this stage is required.

Cut from the book page 268 with the table for tracing of estimates. Make photocopies of the table of account in one copy for each expert (on each valued person – if your workmate is involved in this experiment also). Sort out photographs available for you. Discard those from them which one, according to your tracings, do not mirror emotion properly, it is necessary to sample only those photographs which one as you supposed, mirror your emotions quite successfully.

Ground takeoff on tracings in your table, instead of that you think of these photographs now. Reshuffle photographs which one you prepare to demonstrate experts. Yield each expert a leaf with the table for tracing of estimates and a dial-up of the reshuffled photographs. Do not suggest them and do not try to help, they should yield characteristic estimates of each photograph. The expert can be in trouble with your neutral photographs (as does not know that they neutral), but it should follow the operating instruction given in the table, and at uncertainty again and again to try to value photographs (to experts do not yield neutral alternative of an estimate because they could use its every time, testing uncertainty and also because if to them have given such alternative, you could not value probability of presence of "congealed sense» about which one will be told more low).

After you gain estimates a minimum of three experts, it is possible to start to count effects. Take the logbook of the table. In a right side of the pillar, entitled "Estimate", point an amount of experts which one have assigned each photograph specific emotion. For example, by reviewing of your photograph on which one the person expressing pleasure is fixed, you record in the table that three from four experts have termed its joy; if only one expert has termed its surprised, you do not need to record this effect; at obvious dispersion of estimates without explicit prevalence of any one judgement mirror in the logbook all estimates on each photograph and point number of the experts who have yielded each of estimates. Now you are ready to begin the assaying.

Take neutral photographs which one you demonstrated experts, and suppose them before yourself. Spot that is written about them in the table of estimates:

1. Photographs have been termed joy by the majority of experts.

2. Photographs have been termed sad by the majority of experts.

3. Photographs have been termed either joy, or sad by the majority of experts.

4. Experts have displayed not enough unanimity: almost each title of emotion has been used by that or diverse expert.

5. At least, one photograph has been termed joy (or expressing pavor, either anger, or disgust) not less than half of experts.

If your effect matches to point 4, that, was possiblly, you do not have «congealed sense», influencing your neutral countenance as it has not been gained an unanimous estimate of experts. If your effect matches to point 1, that, was possiblly, you do not have «congealed sense», influencing your neutral countenance because the answer "joy" is a frequent estimate looking neutral persons when experts are forced to select one of the tendered terms featuring emotion. The neutral person also often term "sad", therefore, if the effect matches to point 2 or 3 you, was interquartile, have no "congealed sense», colouring your neutral expression. Recall that the limiting form of grief leads to appearance at the person passionless, apparent neutral persons. However it is is possible that at the effects corresponding to point 2 or 3, your neutral person could look not neutral or passionless, and to demonstrate traces of typical expression of grief. You can validate this assertion, comparing the photographs with the image of the neutral person with demonstrated in chapter 8 and comparing separately each field of the person. Is better to make it by means of three "masks" of the black paper, fractionally closing down the person in a photograph. One mask cut so that at its superimposing on any of photographs remained brows and a forehead are visible only; another – that it abandoned unclosed only dogs, a nose and a mouth, and third – that she allowed to see in a photograph only your eyes and eyelids. Close down your neutral photograph so that your brows – a forehead were visible only. Compare the gained effect about fig. 51. A leah you see likeness? If it also is, feeble enough. Do not expect to see in the photograph of anything so clear, as in this picture. Now compare the same method your eyes – eyelids to eyes – the centuries demonstrated on fig. 52, and your heel of the person with the heel of the person on fig. 53. On the basis of these comparing you can spot, a leah is present at you on the person «congealed sense» griefs.

If the effect of estimates matches to point 5, it points that any emotion marked by experts on your person frequently will be really present. As you, probably, remember, it can happen that you permanently save any implication of this emotion on the person instead of completely relaxing it when at all do not test any emotion («congealed sense»). Or it can be the static cue which has originated because of a special constitution of your person. For example, if at you deeply put eyes or low brows people can value your person as angered (a photograph № 52 of a dial-up of the photographs appended to chapter 9, the neutral person who looks angered because of its particular singularities) demonstrates. Was interquartile, you should know that you try to attach the person such expression, even when do not test any emotions. If your effect matches to point 5 compare each field in photographs of your person to the applicable pictures in the book, using masks from a black paper about which one we spoke above. Following activities tendered by us are applicable to each emotion photographed by you. Suppose photographs of emotions before itself. Validate that is told in the table of estimates about each photograph.

1. An overwhelming majority of the experts, valuing both photographs, have termed emotion which one you worried, imagined or created on the person.

2. The majority of experts have correctly spotted emotion which one you were aimed to demonstrate, but in all remaining estimates all or nearly so any other emotion has been termed; for example five from ten experts have termed your astonished face surprised, and three from remained five have termed its frightened.

3. Almost equal allocation of estimates between emotion which one you figured, and any one other emotion was watched.

4. In the majority of estimates the emotion which is distinct from those which one you demonstrated was mentioned.

5. Between experts there was no consent concerning an estimate of emotions; no more than thirds of experts have stated an equal estimate.

If the effect of an estimate of both your photographs demonstrating any emotion, matches to point 1 in this case there are no indicatings on your adherence to any style of mapping of emotions on the person.

If the effect of an estimate of both your photographs matches to point 5, and your tracings in the table say that you tested any emotion and thought that you map it on the person then it is is quite interquartile that you are an ineffective expressor of the yielded emotion. However you cannot assured of be absolute it. Was possiblly, you have not demonstrated emotion on the person of that the situation in which one filming was made, was too artificial. But there is a high probability of that you really ineffective expressor, and at you can originate desire to validate this guess. We will admit, it was clarified that you an ineffective expressor of disgust; next time, when you will get in a situation at which one will have disgust and to you will seem that you express it on the person, ask the friends as you look, a leah they can term a feeling had by you, and etc.

If the effect featured in point 5, approaches for all emotions or for everything, except pleasure then you, was interquartile, are utaivatelem. Was possiblly also that the method of usage of photographs does not approach for you. If you are utaivatelem your close people know about this your singularity, therefore you should check its implication.

The effects featured in points 2, 3 and 4, point that you substituting expressor. The effect of point 3 speaks about it more convincingly, than the effect of point 2, and effect of point 4 – is more convincing, than effect of point 3. If one of these effects is gained for both your photographs, and according to your tracings, you thought, as if tested any emotion and demonstrated it then it is possible to consider you as substituting expressor with larger probability, than in an event when one of these effects would match only to one photograph and thus there would be no tracings that you really tested the yielded emotion or well expressed it on the person. We will guess that you the substituting expressor demonstrating on the person disgust instead of anger; your photographs expressing "anger", some experts (point 2), half experts (point 4) could value experts (point 3) or the majority as expressing disgust. By means of one of masks of a black paper close down your "angered" photographs so that to see on them only the heel of the person. Compare your heels of the person to photographs in the book on which one persons in the heel the anger or disgust expresses. To you it is clear, why experts considered you having disgust when you thought what express on the person anger? Look narrowly also at field of eyes – a century and fields of brows – a forehead. So you can discover, what exactly on your person has caused experts to recognise you having disgust while you thought that demonstrate on the person anger. It does not mean that you do not test anger; it only means that when you test the anger, people watching of you can solve that you have disgust.

Certainly, the effects of experts corresponding to points 2, 3 and 4 not necessarily point that you are substituting expressor. The best method to validate this fact consists in once again to photograph your person at the moment of experience of that emotion substituting which one expressor you can be. Give particular attention to an experience select which one does not lead to originating of a compound of problem emotion and its emotion-substitute. Exchange photographs of this emotion available for you new, yield all dial-up of snapshots (and not just new) to other experts and look, a leah will repeat former effect. If is not present, you really cannot be assured of a volume, what effect was correct – maiden or second. However if the result in the whole repeats, most likely, you – a substituting expressor.

We have featured the methods, allowing to clarify by results of an estimate of your photographs, a leah there can be you utaivatelem, the ineffective expressor substituting ekspresorom or zatsiklennym with an expressor with «congealed sense». At a following stage we will feature miscellaneous routines which one will help to spot, a leah you are an involuntary expressor. These routines are applicable also for an estimate utaivatelej, ineffective expressors and substituting expressors.

Stage third: mirror usage

In an everyday life you rely on feedback signals from your characteristic front muscles (the feels arriving from inside, from your person) for understanding and monitoring of expressions occurbing on your person. When you demonstrate emotion on the person, good feedback yields you understanding of that, what is this emotion (the context, other feels, memories and etc. also can tell to you about it), allows to check a countenance, cushioning or masking it or simulating emotion not tested by you.

You cannot ask permanently people as your person looks, and you cannot see permanently the person in a mirror during lecture. From this it follows that feedback from your person is necessary to you, but such feedback happens is developed feeblly enough. Was possiblly, for any parent you have not learnt to learn that feels your person when you demonstrate on it various emotions. If it so, wait for nuisances. If you do not know that feels your person, when muscles contract to express, for example, anger you can not know when you express this emotion on the person (an involuntary expressor). When you test anger, on your person disgust (a substituting expressor) can be mapped. Or you can not demonstrate on the person anything (an ineffective expressor). And it is is possible, you not in a state to slacken anger expression on the person. Or are not capable to simulate on the person anger. For these parents further we will feature activities which one will help to spot, how much well you are able to use feedback from your person.

The friend hand-held mirror, major enough that in it your person was completely mirrored is required to you. It is necessary to overcome originating sense of confusion when you will begin "primerivat" various countenances and to consider them in a mirror. For an explanation of succession of indispensable activities we use in the capacity of an example anger, but you can apply this succession and to any other emotion.

1. Be converted to fig. 42 in the end of the chapter devoted to anger (for other emotions be converted to pictures in the end of the applicable heads).

2. Try to imitate on the person each image demonstrated in this picture.

3. You are capable it to make? Validate itself on a mirror.

4. If you do not manage to make it without the aid of a mirror at simulation tryings look in a mirror; imitate the persons demonstrated in a picture.

5. If you can imitate them, mark, a leah the senses demonstrated on the person are familiar to you, and a leah really the yielded sense is felt as anger. If it is felt as you as well clear iterate this routine for following emotion. But if you could not iterate a countenance in this picture, even looking in a mirror, or other persons demonstrated in the book could not play back, and have considered felt feel as strange and unfamiliar transfer to point 6.

6. Discover a picture demonstrating a standing of brows – a forehead for considered emotion; in case of anger it will be the left snapshot on fig. 31. Using a mirror, imitate this expression. If it was possible to you, wonder, a leah is felt this expression as familiar (as unfamiliar) and a leah is felt it as emotion which one you meant.

7. Be converted to a picture demonstrating eyes – eyelids, and iterate everything that you made under point 6 operating instruction.

8. Be converted to a picture demonstrating the heel of the person and iterate everything that you made under point 6 operating instruction.

9. Try to fix sequentially on each of parts of the person expression of the emotion demonstrated in the book. For example, at first on a top hamper (a brow – a forehead), then on medial and lower parts of the person. Has no meaning, you will begin with which part of the person. You managed to constitute blanket expression? It is felt as familiar or how unfamiliar? A leah is felt it as emotion which one you want to figure?

If under the operating instruction of point 5 you managed to make a required countenance and you have felt it as familiar and corresponding to figured emotion then it is improbable that you are utaivatelem, substituting expressor, an ineffective expressor or an involuntary expressor. If at accomplishment of this job you have failed, but have achieved effect on point 9 (you could make the necessary person, and it was felt as familiar and corresponding to the yielded emotion) the previous output will appear for you valid. If your unique problem consisted in giving to brows – to a forehead of angry or sad expression, and you have perfectly managed giving of the necessary expression of a remaining part of the person, the previous output again will appear valid for you. Disability to attach these two expressions to brows – to a forehead, it is interquartile, conditioned by any singularity of your person. Generally, while you can "model" the person according to operating instructions of points 5 or 9, using two of three fields of the person, there are bases to speak about implication at you no one of these styles.

If you could attach the person expression according to demands of points 5 and 9, but it was perceived by you as unusual you can be an involuntary expressor of this emotion. In other words, you do not learn that as you is felt, when you demonstrate expression which one others would learn as corresponding to the yielded emotion on the person. If, following point 5 or point 9 operating instructions, you have attached the person required expression and have experienced that it is familiar to you, but thus it was felt as you not how emotion which one you figured (for example when you successfully imitated anger on the person, it was felt as you as disgust) you can be substituting expressor of this emotion.

What it is possible to tell in an event when it is not possible to attach the person the expression featured in point 9? If you not in a state to imitate any of the persons demonstrated in a photograph, and your disability is displayed not only in one field of the person, and in all three, then, was interquartile, you an ineffective expressor of this emotion. If you have fulfilled the routines featured on maiden two process steps you should perceive it. If you cannot express on the person the majority of emotions, you, was interquartile, utaivatel.

The activities fulfilled at these three stages, should help to you to learn more about the person and to teach you to be unmade better in expressions of persons of other people, even when these people do not realise that for you one of particular styles of mapping of the emotions featured above is characteristic. But, as we already spoke, if for you one of these styles, it is characteristic, was interquartile, will be displayed only in some situations or only in a stress condition and etc.; if any of styles it is displayed at you in the feeble form or at times then it will not be swept at implementation of the activities featured on each of three stages.

But there can be a problem: what, if for you one of these styles of expression of emotions, and now, after accomplishment featured above activities is characteristic, you are firmly assured, what have learnt to read expressions of the person – a leah you can modified this style? To tell the truth, we do not know. We only start to conduct probes on this subject. However we are adjusted optimistically. Was possiblly that simple learning of typical countenances and yield of practical skills of their recognition can slacken implication of any of these styles. Or the activities provided at all three stages, will contribute in their weakening. Or for this purpose it will be necessary to learn to control abbreviations of face muscles. It is obvious that than more sensitive you become to complications of process of expression of emotions, the more you learn about your characteristic person, the your emotional experience becomes richer.

Eight styles of expression of emotions on the person

Пятница, 16 Ноя 2012, 17:37 | Рубрика: How to validate a characteristic countenance

Whom you are: utaivatelem or the self-unmasker? These are the maiden two styles of expression of emotions, a h they are spotted simply by what person at the person – indicative or inexpressive. Quite often people think that expressiveness depends on static cues of the person – from, a leah has the person major eyes, a beautiful bilge and etc. However all it has not enough meaning. Major dark brows really can make expression of your person more considerably, but more relevant factors are prompt cues of the person. In other words, you control motions of the person or not? Was possiblly, you know people at whom that they feel is rarely mirrored in the person. It does not mean that they intentionally try to trick you and to conceal the emotions; actually they primely rarely display the senses on the person. But there are people, completely it inverse – you always know that they feel, because it "is written" on their persons. They, like children, apparently, cannot modulate expression of the emotions. Happens, as you, and these people are thrown into confusion by that their senses always appear on a type. They frequently upset regulations of mapping of emotions on the person, operating in the yielded crop, but they is simple not in a state to check the emotions.

Self-unmaskers usually know about it; they perceive that can get in a misfortune (at least it is not eliminated), because of that that the senses openly display. They state  that simply can do nothing with it. Utaivateli also know about the prominent feature, though and not always.

Leah you can know, what expresses your person? Involuntary expressors do not know that they map a feeling had by them on the person. If you an involuntary expressor to you, was possiblly, it was necessary to be surprised to that other people know about anger tested by you, pavor or grief. If your friend is an involuntary expressor it can take an interest that you manage to learn that it feels at present. After all he knows nothing that is mirrored in his face. Involuntary expressors usually have the specialisation; they neosoznanno display on the person only one-two emotions.

Leah looks your person neutral when you think, what you display anger (or pavor and etc.)?
Ineffective expressors
are convinced that they display emotion on the person when actually their persons have neutral or an indeterminate form. Like an involuntary expressor the ineffective expressor also has the specialisation. There is any specific emotion which one it not in a state to express on the person when thinks that makes it quite successfully. If you an ineffective expressor, that, was possiblly, you learn about it from commentings  of other people. To you can report that you look not how it state that expression on your person does not match to that sense which one you, by your characteristic words, test, and etc. However we suspect that the majority of ineffective expressors do not know about such singularity.

Leah you look having disgust when actually test anger and think, what look angered? Or you seem another sad when you test anger, or angered when test grief, and etc.?
The substituting expressor
exchanges exterior implication of one emotion by implication another, without knowing that it it makes.

Such person thinks that his face expresses that he feels, and it is hard for discouraging in it. For example, we demonstrated substituting expressors of the video record of expressions of their persons when they tested anger or tried to look angered, and said to them that they look sad. Looking at video records of expressions of the person, they usually disagreed with our statements and insisted that their persons looked angered, instead of sad. To discourage them in it it was possible only when we demonstrated them that the majority of other people seeing these video records, their persons sad also termed.

Leah it happened to you to note, what any part of your person permanently mirrors a trace of the same emotion while actually you do not test it? Instead of looking neutral, the person zatsiklennogo an expressor can look a bit sad (mouth L-steels are slightly lowered or internal L-steels of brows are slightly hoisted), or surprised (brows are slightly hoisted), or expressing disgust – contempt (the labrum is slightly uplifted), or angered (brows are a little let down or labiums are slightly contracted), or disturbed (brows are slightly uplifted and brought together together). Similar expression of "congealed sense» can result from nature whims. For example, the person of the person can be constructed"thus. Or it could become such as a result of the rooted habit to maintain a light strain of front muscles while the person does not endure any specific emotion. The people relating to a category zatsiklennyh of expressors, usually do not know about it.

Leah is displayed your original response practically on any stimulus in the form of expression of surprise, concern, disgust and etc.? Always the ready expressor displays one  of these emotions in the capacity of the maiden response practically on any event or a situation. It always ready expression exchanges a had feeling actually which one can be displayed later. For example, the ready expressor can always make an astonished face at obtaining both good news, and the bad news, and announcement instigating anger, and threats and etc. – whatever happened, surprise expression always occurs at it on the person first of all. Any of the emotions considered by us earlier can be "person on duty", or emotion can be displayed only in any field of the person, for example in the form of the surprised brows, the nose wrinkled from disgust it. Items Always ready expressors, are interquartile, badly informed on the particular style of expression of emotions on the person.

The last style of expression of emotions on the person is demonstrated by the so-called
expressors overfilled with emotion.
Such people always display one or two emotions in absolutely special fashion – almost all time. They for an instant have no neutral feeling;  emotion overflowing  them is an indivisible element of their emotional state. At originating of any new emotion and it appears "coloured" overcrowding emotion. For example, if the person is overfilled by sensation of fear it all time looks frightened; if he starts to test anger looks angered and frightened or that is is even more interquartile, the pavor will superimpose anger, at least pavor will be mapped on appearance of this person. We met the expressors overfilled with emotion only among the people enduring acute sincere crisis or a difficult vital continuance. These people and people enclosing them perfectly know about perepolnennosti any one sense.

Your characteristic countenances, was possiblly, match any of these eight styles only in a minimum level. You can be an involuntary expressor of pavor but only when you have stress. Or you can be an ineffective expressor of anger but only when deal with people the mighty of this world. You can be substituting expressor, but in such feeble level that it will not be appreciable. Everyone, was possiblly, displays one of these styles feeblly or during any time. However at some people this or that of these styles can be displayed clearly enough and is appreciable colour expressions of emotions on the person. If it is characteristic for you you was relevant the nobility about it, to introduce, what expressions on your person other people can see. If you the expressor overfilled with emotion or the self-unmasker, you, was interquartile, already know about it (as well as all, who knows you) and consequently there is no necessity to draw to it your attention. But if for you are characteristic one or several of remaining six styles you can and not know about it, and clarify it uneasy.

Ideal routine of clearing up of this problem will consist in making video records of your countenances in miscellaneous reality situations and to ask the expert on expressions of emotions on the person to learn these tracings and to state them the estimate. We are ready to tender the alternative alternative of a self-supporting estimate, perfectly perceiving that it will approach not to each person or not for each style of expression of emotions (the tendered alternative will not allow to discover always a ready expressor as video records of scenes from real life are for this purpose demanded). Nevertheless we are assured that such estimate will appear for you very useful and that thanks to it you can learn a lot of new to justify the efforts expended by you. Even if you do not have clear style, all of you equally learn much about the person and how to recognise emotions on persons of other people.

This process consists of three stages: photographies of your person, the assaying of the gained snapshots and operation with a mirror. You can fulfil the last stage – operations with a mirror, – without fulfilling maiden two, and to derive any benefit. But if you prepare to transit all three stages, namely we and advise it to you to make, the stage of operation with a mirror needs to be transited right at the end. Otherwise you risk to bring to nothing a capability to learn much useful about yourselves from effects of the maiden and second stages.

Bastard countenances

Вторник, 13 Ноя 2012, 12:06 | Рубрика: How to validate a characteristic countenance

You have learnt to read expressions of emotions on persons of other people. Now there is a logical problem: what do you know about the own person? Though the cores – typical countenances – are multiple-purpose, there are individual variations. At first, because of static cues of the person any expression of emotion will look slightly in a special way depending on altitude of a bilge, a planting depth of eyes, an amount of a meat-basting fat and etc. Secondly, individual experience spawns differences that causes specific emotion. We have short featured some events causing pavor, anger and etc., but the same events do not cause anger in all people. Thirdly, individual regulations of mapping of the emotions, assimilated in the childhood, deeply rooted habits of control of a countenance are various at miscellaneous people. Unlike regulations of mappings of the emotions accepted in certain crop, individual regulations cannot be equal to all members of the yielded crop or a subculture.

Though all these three factors spawn diversiform variations of countenances, we will be engaged primarily in those characteristic countenances which one result from the extension of individual regulations of mapping of emotions. Individual regulations of mapping can be specific enough and concern only specific emotion in a specific situation: for example, the similar rule can prohibit to display anger on the person, when you are angered on the father (going any other people possessing authority). Or individual regulations can be too dilated, too blanket from the point of view of application: for example, you could learn to demonstrate never on the person anger or even generally any emotion when you test them. These individual regulations of mapping can lead to appearance on the person at the person some kind of masks which one will not allow to see his face in its true light. We will feature eight characteristic styles of expression of emotions on the person. We also will feature these styles in their marginal implications that the sense became clearer. Some people are defined by adherence to one of these marginal styles. However the majority of people display the style in less clear form. You can demonstrate one of these styles permanently or only in some situations and some roles, or only in a stress condition, or only in certain continuances of your life and etc. the Ambassador of an explanation of all eight styles we will feature carefully designed sequence of operations, which one you can fulfil to learn, a leah is at you adherence to the marginal form of one of such styles.

Information leakage and fraud behaviour symptoms

Пятница, 09 Ноя 2012, 13:06 | Рубрика: Bastard countenances

We will consider four aspects of a countenance which one will suggest you that the person checks implication of various emotions on the person. The maiden such aspect is the morphology  of the person – a specific configuration of devices of its appearance. All previous heads was structural botanies – to short-term changes in shape of devices of the person and the folds expressing  emotions are devoted. As we will demonstrate further, one part of the person is more often masked, than others but where it is necessary to search false and where the true feeling, depends on specific emotion. The second aspect are time response characteristics of expression of emotion on the person: with what speed occurs, it is how long saved and as promptly disappears. The third aspect is connected to a place of implication of emotion during lecture. The fourth aspect concerns to that we term as the microcountenances  resulting discontinuings of displayed countenances.

All four aspects – morphology, time response characteristics, a place and microcountenances – should be interpreted taking into account a social context. For example, using knowledge of morphology, you can spot, where it is necessary to search for pavor traces on the person who looks angry. But to spot, a leah these traces trying implications are to conceal pavor or implications of a speed key of pavor and anger, you need to lean against a social context. A leah really is that situation in which one the person with a high probability will test simultaneously both pavor and anger? A leah recognises the person, what it has mixed feelings? A leah negates it the fright? What demonstrates its skew field? The social context includes other implications of physical activity (a declination or head driving, a standing of a skew field, driving, a voice, words); the previous and subsequent behaviour; behaviour of other participants of interplay; Situation assessment, its social "frames", the social norms admitting originating of those or diverse emotions. At an explanation of each of information leakage radiants about emotion or symptoms of a fraud behaviour we will point, when the select between the alternative explanations depends on a social context.


Observe that happens at people to labiums, with folds round a nose and about bottom pane of dogs. Our probes allow to guess that the person checking a countenance, controls the person in a greater degree in the field of a mouth, round a mouth and labiums and to a lesser degree in the field of eyes – a century and brows – a forehead. This phenomenon can be explained meaning of voice contacts and necessity of inhibition of unchecked implications of emotions: cries at anger, wails at horror, plaints and sobbings in a grief, vomiting or spittles at disgust, loud laughter at pleasure.

When you modulate a countenance for magnification or weakening of exterior implication of emotion you, most likely, control the mouth. If you have been frightened, you could slacken pavor expression, being failed from entrainment in making of this expression of eyelids or brows – a forehead; but is is more interquartile that instead you will try to eliminate the signs of pavor demonstrated by a mouth. Your expression of pavor could be slackened also at the expense of control of muscular efforts in all three fields of the person with a view of limiting of range of abbreviation of face muscles. And again, most likely, you will centre the efforts on mouth field, restricting here abbreviations of muscles in a greater degree, than in fields of eyes – a century and brows – a forehead.

of countenances control of a mouth also is performed in a greater degree, than control of centuries – eyes or brows – a forehead. If falsification is added by decontamination of expression of had feeling, most likely, this expression will disappear from mouth field. If falsification implies simulation of not tested emotion shutting expression will occur in the field of a mouth. If falsification implies disguise of endured emotion by means of simulated emotion the mouth also with the greatest probability will appear in attention focal point.

Many motions of the muscles allocated inside and round labiums and a mouth, modified also a configuration of dogs, a chin, lower eyelids. Suppose paintbrushes of arms on the person so that finger tips touched lower eyelids, and a palm – a mouth and dogs. Carefully pressing palms and setpins on the person, try to iterate driving by the heel of the person, as is shown in fig. 7, 15, 23, 34, 43 and 53, giving particular attention to changes in the field of lower eyelids. The top hamper of your dogs and lower eyelids are modified to the greatest degree: tsri anger when it is expressed by an open mouth; at disgust when it is expressed by a mouth; at emotion of pleasure when it is expressed by a mouth, but except for mapping of the extremely moderate pleasure. For these emotions effects of a modulation or falsification will be well appreciable not only in the heel of the person, but also on dogs and lower eyelids.

Usually at falsification or a modulation of emotions people control brows – a forehead not so more often, as the heel of the person. Driving of the muscles controlling brows – a forehead, also can influence external appearance of upper eyelids, in particular at anger or grief. The forecast of how information leakages and fraud behaviour symptoms will be displayed at a modulation and falsification of each emotion, depends not only on a special role of each of three fields of the person, but also and from ability of the person to perform specific muscular driving.

Earlier we marked that some stands of brows – a forehead are used in the capacity of "punctuation marks" and focus attention on separate words or phrases. If the person uses driving of brows – a forehead in the capacity of "punctuation mark" (without dependence from that, it is implication of surprise or derivative implication of anger or even more rarely used derivative implication of grief) it can bear and that the person lies by means of such driving. At least, it has a wide experience of usage of this driving.

Some motions of the person ensuring expression of emotion, play also an emblem role. As you remember, the emblem represents the muscular driving which is not expression of sense, and only conventional link to sense, it like an emotion mention in speech. The brows hoisted from surprise were featured as a problem emblem, a let down mandible – as an emblem of stupefaction and etc. If the muscular driving which is a part of expression of emotion, it appears also an emblem it is is quite interquartile that with its help it is possible to lie successfully, and hardly the person will have an information leakage about emotion in this field of the person. Allowing for all told, we can guess, where it is necessary to search for information leakage and symptoms of a fraud behaviour for each of six emotions considered by us.

Recognition of information leakage and fraud behaviour symptoms in pleasure  expressions is influenced by that fact that is the unique emotion which is not envisioning the characteristic driving in the field of brows – a forehead. If someone simulates pleasure, – making the happy person, but without testing any emotions, – that we cannot see fraud behaviour symptoms in a non-participation in this process of brows – a forehead. The person simply does not need to involve this field of the person. Besides if it uses  pleasure expression  as a mask for cover of other emotion it is impossible to make joy brows – a forehead, and because of it there can be an information leakage about actually tested emotion through brows – a forehead And upper eyelids. When pleasure expression is slackened, on the person its traces in the form of a lung of highs of dogs, feeble extension of L-steels of a mouth, light shrinkages of lower eyelids as before can be saved, even when the smile upon the face already is not present.

Surpriseis simulated easily enough because used for this driving of a mouth and brows are the emblems concerning surprise (on fig. 5 the problem emblem – the surprised brows has been demonstrated, and on fig. 8 the stupefaction emblem – the surprised mouth) is demonstrated. Was possiblly, a unique symptom of a fraud behaviour at surprise simulation – lack unclosed, but the relaxed eyelids. Though same can match to less interested or stunned surprise (fig. 10В) if the social context admits similar surprise. Later we will explain, how simulation can be taped through the irregular select of its time response characteristics.

Surprise can be used for pavor disguise, but is not too successful. It is an interquartile mask for pavor because of likenesses of experience of these emotions and situations in which one they originate. But because of likenesses in muscular motions the pavor, was interquartile, will "appear through" through surprise. Surprise can be used for disguise of any other emotion. For example, if to you tell about someone’s fatality and grief expression on the person while you test pleasure you can mask its surprise expect from you. Some people customary react exterior implication of surprise to any information to avoid necessity to demonstrate the immediate emotional response («always a ready expressor» about what it will be still told in chapter 11). The pointer that the surprised expression – masks, minister countenance time response characteristics: Surprise will be durating to conceal other sense but as we explained earlier, surprise is a short-term emotion. If it is saved longly, that, was interquartile, will look insincere.

If the person simulates pavor, that, was interquartile, at it it is possible to watch the scared mouth and this person will steadfastly look in one point, therefore search on his face for neutral brows – a forehead. It can be a fraud behaviour symptom, but also and implication of the pavor transferring in horror, for demostratsii which one brows – a forehead (the right snapshot on fig. 19) will not be involved; the select depends on a social context. Expression of pavor with neutral brows – a forehead can originate and consequently that the yielded specific person usually does not make such driving. This one of marginal implications obvious, but the relevant blanket principle. You with larger probability will discover the fact of control of a countenance if you are familiar with idiosyncrasies in repertoire a countenance of the yielded person, – that happens to the person of the person when he sincerely tests and expresses each emotion. The configuration of the scared brows – a forehead can originate never at some people though at many it nevertheless occurs on the person when they are really frightened, it is difficult for simulating because uneasy to create purposely. And the scared brows – a forehead unlike the surprised or angered brows are not an emblem or "punctuation mark". Therefore when on the person there are scared brows – a forehead it is the safe detecting instrument of felt pavor. When they occur on the neutral person it means that the person feels inartificial pavor, was possiblly, light, and is is possible, strong and checked. If the scared brows – a forehead occur on the person which one remaining fields express other emotion, it says about a speed key of emotions tested by the person or that other parts of the person mask true feeling. What is this sense, will help you to perceive a context. For example, when the scared brows – a forehead are added by a joy mouth and happy lower eyelids (as is shown in fig. 49), most likely, the joy component of this countenance is a mask if only the yielded situation does not allow to guess that the person can be both is joy, and is frightened simultaneously. If the pavor masked any other emotion for this purpose it would not be required to involve a brow – a forehead, and really endured emotion could be visible in this field of the person.

When the anger  the entrainment assaying in making of this expression of various fields of the person can not tap obvious symptoms of a fraud behaviour is simulated. Though we marked that brows – a forehead usually are not involved in control of a countenance, nevertheless the let down and brought together brows which are one of components of expression of pavor (fig. 31), point an emblem of determination, concentration or bewilderment. To attach such standing to brows – to a forehead it is very easily; it also is used as "punctuation mark". Hence, you can expect that brows – a forehead along with other fields of the person will be used and for expression of simulated anger. Anger simulation in the heel of the person (for example, companies with densely oblate labiums) also does not present difficulty. Lack of a strain of lower eyelids can be the unique device which is not displayed at simulation of anger, that, unconditionally, is a feeble symptom of a fraud behaviour. Anger weakening also can be performed in the field of brows – a forehead and the heel of the person. When the anger is used in the capacity of masks, it is displayed and in the heel of the person, and on a forehead therefore the information on really endured emotion can radiate only from eyelids. When for anger disguise other emotion the tested anger can be read in a stare, intense lower eyelids and the frowned brows is used.

Disgust is simulated simply enough as there are three emblems of this emotion: the corrugated nose, the uplifted labrum and the uplifted L-steel of a mouth (fig. 25). Brows – a forehead play  so a small part in giving to the person of a disgusted expression that attentions (if in case of tested disgust of a brow – a forehead were saved in a static state while the heel of the person would express feeble disgust, it would not be very clear symptom of emotion) actually do not attract. Disgust is used for disguise more often. Information leakage about anger can be discovered in the field of brows – a forehead if brows not only are frowned, as at disgust, but also are brought together (as is shown in fig. 38В). Besides, the information can be discovered in intense angry blepharons and steadfastly looking eyes, in the heel of the person expressing disgust (as on fig. 39А). But these expressions can be combined, if the situation causes simultaneously both disgust, and anger. If the person negates anger tested by it in a situation explicitly causing this sense, or only slightly mentions tested disgust, most likely, it masks disgust the anger. The same happens, and when disgust is used for pavor disguise; the pavor, was interquartile, will be displayed as before in the field of brows – a forehead and in sclera appearance over an iris of the eye of eyes (fig. 29). A leah will be it a speed key of emotions or the disguise testimony, depends on a social context, specially that speaks and is made by the person. As the unique strong device in a disgusted expression is in the heel of the person and the heel of the person is used at simulation it is is quite interquartile more often that tryings to mask disgust by means of giving to the person of other expression will appear successful. But when disgust is masked by means of other emotion, its traces can be displayed in slightly uplifted labrum or slightly corrugated nose.

In case of
 simulation this emotion, was interquartile, will be displayed in the heel of the person and in a let down view. Lack of implications of grief in the field of brows – a forehead and in upper eyelids will be  a safe sign of that the grief is simulated. As well as in case of the scared brows – a forehead, – a forehead it is possible to term sad brows specially as a safe symptom of tested grief because such expression is difficult for making purposely; it is not a part of an emblem of a countenance and is rarely used as "punctuation mark". However some people never express grief by means of brows – a forehead even if they it is sincere something are grieved. As we already marked by reviewing of emotion of pavor, you should know, a leah is this or that muscular driving typical for the yielded person to make safe outputs about information leakage retention about emotion or about fraud behaviour symptoms. If brows – a forehead are not used the man e eat for expression of really tested grief their neutrality will tell nothing to you about that, demonstrated expression of grief by simulation is or not. When you deal with such people, you need to look at the form of their upper eyelids. Internal L-steels of eyelids should be a little uplifted, when the person is really grieved, even if the grief is not mirrored in the field of brows – a forehead; however this symptom is feeble enough. If sad brows – a forehead customary occur at the person when he does not test grief it also will influence your capability to tap simulation. Very few people use sad brows – a forehead in the capacity of "punctuation mark", but they are capable to trick you when will simulate grief (including by means of brows – a forehead and upper eyelids).

When the person slackens the expression of grief, his eyebrow – the forehead and upper eyelids most likely prolong to point information leakage about actual force of endured sense. If grief expression is masked by means of other emotion »that sad brows – the forehead and upper eyelids with the greatest probability will report about such leak-off. And when the grief is used for disguise of other emotion (if the extremely atypical people using sad brows do not resort to it – a forehead in the capacity of« a punctuation mark) the grief mask cannot conceal the information radiating from brows – a forehead about really endured emotion.

Time response characteristics

You can recognise the fact of control of expression by the person, specially fraud behaviour symptoms, paying attention to time response characteristics of countenances. How promptly there is an emotion on the person (an appearance continuance)? How long emotion is saved on the person before it will start to damp or be succeeded by other emotion (duration)? And as emotion (eclipse phase) promptly disappears; a leah decays it gradually or very promptly? There is no the simple and safe blanket rule, allowing to tell, what these three temporary arguments for each of emotions. We cannot state that the anger should originate no more than for 1,3 secs, last not less than 7 secs and stop instantaneously. Such statements would be unreasonable. Time response characteristics depend on a social context, but demands of each situation can be spotted enough. We will guess that you simulated pleasure when your companion has concluded to tell to you a joke. The time indispensable that a smile has occurbed on your person (an appearance continuance), depends on character of passage to the last phrase, a saliferous history (gradual or sharp) and singularities of this phrase (it has sounded promptly or has been expanded). Duration saved your person smiles (duration) depends on that, how much ridiculous there was a joke, a leah follows it other joke and etc. Speed of extinction of a smile from your person (eclipse phase) depends that is told then, from your ratios with the story-teller and etc. At the pleasure image each of us uses knowledge of morphology of the person – we uplift edges of a mouth and we pull back them, was possiblly, slightly slightly opening a mouth, and we wrinkle L-steels of eyelids. But is customary we not so well we know, what should be an appearance continuance, duration and a smile eclipse phase. If you look per capita closely, you learn the main time response characteristics of the emotion expressed on his face, and it can play a pivotal role in recognition of symptoms of a fraud behaviour.


The  understanding of a place of implication of emotion is intimately bound to understanding of time response characteristics of expression of emotion on the person in the course of lecture: where and after what words there is this or that expression of emotion and by what telodvizhenijami it is added. We will guess, you prepare to simulate anger, stating other person that you are full up its behaviour though actually you are not annoyed on it to such level in spite of the fact that prepare to look angered. For "plausibility" you want to express anger not only words, but also the person. It will be thus very relevant, in what place of your tirade you display anger expression on the person. If after verbal announcement («I am full up thy features» … 1,5 secs … and then anger expression) it will look insincere. Demonstrating anger earlier, let us assume, to words «I is full up», you will not demonstrate fraud behaviour symptoms if this expression will be followed by other acute announcements. It will look so as if you try to solve, a leah to express to you anger, and if yes, as.

Apparently, there are less freedom in simultaneous usage of countenances and skew field movements. We will guess that, saying words: «I am full up», you hit a kulak on desktop and demonstrate anger expression on the person before shock, instead of in a time and not after it. If expression of your person is not synchronised with motions of your skew field, it will look insincere.


Sometimes at weakening, decontamination or disguise of a countenance the person "stops" already displayed expression and "does not retain" its any driving of front muscles. This discontinuing creates the fourth radiant of information leakage and fraud behaviour symptoms – so-called microexpression
(about three others – structural botanies, time response characteristics and a place – we already spoke.)

Though in most cases countenances are watched more than one sec, microexpressions last much less: was possiblly, from 1/5 about 1/25 secs. Some of them occur as a result of discontinuings when on a countenance there is any action. You are frightened, pavor expression starts to occur on your person, you feel on operation of the front muscles that start to look frightened, and you slacken, will neutralise or mask this expression. Any fractions of a second pavor expression will be really present on your person. Microexpressions are usually displayed in dynamics, and is frequent in motions of the person at talk. And after them usually there are masking countenances. Thanks to our probes we know that the majority of people is not paid by attentions to microexpressions or at all do not see them, but that everyone who possesses good sight, in a state them to make out. Certain practice is required to perceive that it is necessary to search on the person. You can practise discovery of these short-term expressions, for an instant demonstrating yourself the photographs appended to chapter 9. Thus you gain submission about speed of gang of microexpressions.

Some microexpressions are not displayed sufficiently that it was possible to perceive, what emotion is slackened, will be neutralised or masked. They are killed too early. These pieces of expressions can point nevertheless that the person controls expression of the person. But there are microexpressions complete enough to become information source about endured emotion. Was possiblly (though nobody can state it for certain) that microexpressions originate not only when people intentionally control the person but when they, tricking itself, do not know that they feel actually.

For the people using microexpressions as information source, it is necessary to make some warnings. If the person does not demonstrate microexpressions, it at all does not mean that it does not slacken, will not neutralise or does not mask emotions endured by it. As we marked earlier, one people are able professionally «to lie the person»; others are able to figure remarkably on the person any emotions though their activity of it at all does not demand; at third it is possible to watch information leakage and implications of symptoms of a fraud behaviour, but never – microexpressions. Besides at people microexpressions in one situations can be watched and not be watched in others. Microexpressions are safe in the capacity of symptoms of a fraud behaviour and information leakage radiants, but you cannot make any safe outputs of their lack.

It is necessary to mark that not only on the person it is possible to watch information leakage about emotions and fraud behaviour symptoms. nestykovki and discrepancies between words, motions of a skew field and a voice also yes a poop the useful helps. We know that people (at least, in our crop) try to control expressions of the person more than motions of a skew field and, was possiblly, more than a voice. The significant attention in our today’s probes is routed on determination of those movements of a skew field which one can be radiants of information leakages and fraud behaviour symptoms. If you watch of a skew field, you can show signs that emotions of the person are checked. But to an explanation of that as why it is necessary to watch, other our book which one will occur in the near future bodily is devoted.

In chapter 2 we spoke about the probes taken as a principle of this book, and marked that much from this that we would like to tell about recognition of characters of control by countenances, yet has not gained strict scientific confirmations. These ideas should be treated as the guess. The majority of them is interquartile, correct, even what are not applicable to each person or each situation. Remember also that there is a flock of problems which one it is necessary to be able to answer for successful recognition of control by countenances.

 You really want to look at the person of the person?

 You really want to know that the person feels actually, or simply prefer to know only what he wants that you knew?

 A leah Is able to lie convincingly the person the person owing to demands of the occupation or for other parents?

 A leah you how this person routinely looks Know when he tests specific emotion and does not check expression of the person? (If is not present, be more careful in the estimates.)

 You are familiar with morphology of the person, with exterior implication of each emotion in all three fields of the person? (Remember: where and on what it is necessary to look, depends on specific emotion.)

 You note countenance time response characteristics: an appearance continuance, duration and an eclipse phase?

 You allow for a place of appearance of expression of emotion during lecture?

 You pay attention to microexpressions?

 You compare a countenance of the person with skew field motions, a position, and tinter of a voice

 You validate the alternative explanations taking into account knowledge of a social context

Than more manifold methods you can tap signs of control of a countenance (using morphology, time response characteristics, a place, microexpressions, mismatch of movements of a skew field and tinter of a voice) and the is more often you will watch them, the with major trust you can concern to the estimates of expression of emotions on the person.

That impedes recognition of control by countenances

Среда, 07 Ноя 2012, 15:03 | Рубрика: Bastard countenances

How to learn, a leah controls the person expressions of the person and a leah he, in particular, resorts to the falsification therefore the information received by you will lead you into error specially strongly? More often you can learn about it without special problems because in most cases control of a countenance happens by the rules dictated by tradition of yielded crop. You, was interquartile, perceive, when the person follows these regulations, but the same factors causing it to control by expression of the person, will lead you to ignoring of the errors admitted by it or "oversights". And even it can appear that you want to be truck or, at least, do not admit that you know about the senses tested by the person actually. Recall, how much time you asked to people a problem: «How do you feel today?» Actually without wishing it the nobility and skipping everything that was displayed on the person of the person, except for the formal smile which one demand to figure on the person at salution the regulations accepted in our crop.

More often it is necessary to concentrate attention not on recognition of control by a countenance, and on the ignoring of errors which one are admitted by other people in countenances. In certain cases you automatically ignore the facts falsifications of the emotional information which one gain from others. It is the most typical for situations when people conform to the rules the mappings, accepted in their crop because social forces attack and per capita, demonstrating a certain countenance, and the one who this expression sees. You can participate in such "collusion", even when the person intentionally tries to trick you to content the needs of a present situation. The wife can "not note" false countenances of the husband-red tape because she does not want to complicate the life, thus she can realise or not realise characteristic involvement in this collusion.

Sometimes you recognise the fact of control of a countenance because it is wanted by other person, but any of you of it does not recognise. It almost always happens when the countenance is cushioned, when the commenting is added. The emollient smile is added to the person expressing pavor that other person has seen this emollient effect and has perceived that the felt pavor will be saved, but it will not cause flight, cries and etc. Sometimes the countenance is modulated so that magnification or weakening of implication of emotion became obvious. We will guess, you want, that the person instigating you has perceived that you are enraged, but check yourself and will not undertake against it standards of physical action. One of methods of transmission of this report consists in demonstrating on the person slackened expression of anger and obviously to demonstrate the fact of such weakening. The person instigating you knows that you are enraged, but he also knows that you control the anger. Sometimes the countenance is falsified so that the transferable report became apparently false. The falsifier can be aimed to that insincerity of expression of his face became clear  to everyone. The person lost the near relation and sincerely grieving over it, can mask for any moment the real sense of deep grief a smile when he will hail the old friend, come to voice the condolences. The smile can be very restrained and to minister only indispensable device of sacramental of salution, instead of a contrivance of actually tested deep grief or grief.

But that it is possible to tell about those situations in which one the countenance is modulated or falsified for a fraud behaviour or false representation of what the person feels actually? When it is necessary for you to know that the person, instead of what it demonstrates really feels? Some people almost do not abandon a capability to perceive when they really check the senses. They work very artfully. Good actors are rather convincing, as well as good sellers, lawyers. If you have clashed with such professional, the only thing that you need – not to take his face expression in all good faith. Unfortunately, there are the people, professionally lying the person, but not being neither actors, nor sellers, lawyers; primely these people well are able to trick others by means of expressions of the person. Routinely they it is perfect about it know, and in due course about it their friends learn also. During one of probes we have tried to clarify basic performances of people which one without special instruction become skilful deceivers. However we yet have not assembled sufficient data to prepare the entire account about our operation. Fortunately, the majority of people such deceivers are not.

If you do not want, that you led into error and if thus you have no case with the person, professionally lying person it is necessary for you to recognise signs of information leakage and fraud behaviour symptoms. Leak-off can be spotted as inadvertent «предательское* implication of emotion which one the person tries to conceal. At a symptom of a fraud behaviour you perceive that control of the person really happens, but do not perceive the true emotion, – you simply learn that gain the inadequate information. When the person tries to neutralise anger which one he really tests, but makes it not too successfully you can note traces of its anger (leak-off). Or it can successfully neutralise anger implication, having made the radiopaque person; however it looks unnaturally, and you perceive that the person mirrors in the person not that sense which one tests actually (a fraud behaviour symptom). We will guess, the person masks anger grief expression; The anger can is real be displayed somehow on the person (leak-off) and if it is not displayed, but grief expression is unconvincing (a fraud behaviour symptom) you will fathom – the person conceals any other emotion. We will guess now that the anger is modulated, its intensity drops to level of a feeble boring, – again on such person can be watched information leakage about stronger anger or primely symptom of a fraud behaviour pointing that this boring false.

Management methods a countenance

Суббота, 03 Ноя 2012, 22:42 | Рубрика: Bastard countenances

At control of expression of the person you can try to cushion exterior implication  of tested emotion, to modulate expression of this emotion or to falsify the transferable  report.


At a softening of a countenance you add to already existing expression-comment. For example, if you display pavor at approach of the dentist can add to the countenance a disgust device of the report in the capacity of directed the doctor that you are opposite to yourselves because of your pavor. Expression of feeling had by you was not modified on the intensity as at a modulation, and it has not appeared concealed or exchanged with expression of feeling not had by you, as at falsification. Emotion expression can become softer when it occurs at once after the maiden expression or in the capacity of the social commenting demanded by regulations of mapping of emotions (individual or accepted in the yielded crop), or as sincere expression of following sense. The person really can have disgust to itself because of the pavor before the dentist, or it can follow regulations of mapping of emotions to make it clear that it any more the child.

For a countenance softening the smile more often is used; it is added in the capacity of the commenting to any negative emotions. The emollient smile furnishes the clue to understanding of negative aftereffects or limits of implication of negative emotion. She reports to other person that you as before behave in arms. For example, if you smile to cushion anger expression, you say the person that you do not want to go too far that your attack will be restricted or slackened. If the smile is admixed with anger, instead of cushions it in the capacity of the subsequent commenting you say to these that you enjoy anger tested by you. The smile softening expression of grief, speaks: «I can withstand it», «I will not begin to cry any more» and etc.

Expression softening – the most moderate form of government the person. It distorts a countenance very little and usually occurs as a result of a running to regulations of mapping of emotions (individual or accepted in the yielded crop), instead of for the sake of requirements satisfaction of a present situation. As contortion of the transferable report appears minimum, and softening testimonies obvious enough, we will not consider here methods of recognition of the fact of a softening of expression of emotion.


At a modulation of a countenance you adjust its intensity to demonstrate that you feel actually. You do not comment on the report on emotion (as at a softening) and do not change character of the report (as at falsification), – you boost or slacken intensity of the report. There are three methods of a modulation of a countenance: you can change an amount of involved fields of the person, duration of saving of expression or range of abbreviations of front muscles.

Let’s guess that John, feeling pavor, follows regulations of mapping of the emotions, obligating it to demonstrate on the person only expression of light fear. If John feels pavor this emotion will be mirrored in all three fields of his face as it is demonstrated on fig. 22А. If it has to slacken expression of this sense it can undertake any of following activities (or their any combination):

 To Remove implications of pavor in the field of a mouth (as on fig. 19А) and, was possiblly, also in eyes (fig. 13Б) or to demonstrate the pavor only a mouth (as on the right snapshot fig. 17).

 To Reduce duration of expression of pavor.

 Less to expand a mouth, less to strain lower eyelids and not to hoist and not to bring together so strongly brows.

If John really felt only fear, but would try to look frightened it really should be attached the person the expression demonstrated on fig. 13Б, and to modified the activities directed on weakening of expression of pavor. Usually, when people modulate, that is boost or slacken expressions of the emotions, they use all three methods – modifying an amount of the involved fields a basswood, duration of saving of expression and force of abbreviation of face muscles. Further we will consider how to recognise the modulated countenances.


At falsification of expression of emotion on the person you demonstrate that sense which one do not test (simulation), or do not demonstrate anything when actually have any feeling (decontamination), or conceal emotion tested by you under expression of other emotion which one you actually do not test (disguise). In case of
you try to make impression that really endure any emotion when actually  do not test any emotions. Introduce that someone tells you about fatality of yours ostensibly the close friend, and it at all does not stir you, you do not test any senses, but attach the person sad expression. It is termed as simulation.

Successfully to simulate emotion, you should remember that feel as each emotional expression on your person "from inside" that was conscientious to adjust expression of the person looks and to demonstrate that emotion which one you want to demonstrate associates. Usually you cannot foresee need for simulation and have no capability to practise before a mirror to observe the person and to rehearse giving to it of various expressions. Children and teenagers work out often at themselves various countenances thus, adults also practise before a mirror on the eve of any special relevant events about which one they know in advance. But more often it is necessary to rely on proprioceptive feels – on how emotion on your person "from inside" is felt. It is necessary to be able to trap these feels and to store that tested your person when you have been angered, frightened also etc. that you could was conscientious to attach yourselves this or that type.

Decontamination is completely inverse to simulation. You test the strong emotion, but try to look so as if do not feel anything. Decontamination is a limiting form of weakening of emotion at which one the countenance is modulated so that intensity of mapping  of endured emotion was null. If John has been frightened, but wanted to look quiet and passionless it would use decontamination. In case of decontamination you try:

 To save face muscles in the relaxed state, without admitting muscle contractions;

 To retain face muscles in a standing, allowing to attach the person passionless expression: jaws are contracted; labiums are closed, but without a visible effort; eyes stare, but eyelids are not strained, and etc.;

 To mask external appearance of your person, biting or licking labiums, wiping eyes, scratching any parts of the person and etc.

To perform decontamination very uneasy, specially if your emotional response was caused by any severe event or a beggarticks of such events. Usually at usage of decontamination you look so stiffened or strained that, at least, eliminate the type a falsification capability even if emotion which one you test actually, outwardly is not displayed. But more often instead of decontamination of emotions people try to mask them that is much easier and more effective.

At usage
of disguise
you simulate emotion, which one actually do not test to shade or conceal the genuine. When you have heard about the fatality which has happened  to your inferred friend, and have figured grief it was simulation only on the person provided that you did not test generally any senses. If you have revolted and have tried to conceal it, having attached the person sad expression, is would be disguise. People resort to disguise because it easier to conceal one countenance under another, than to try not to express on the person of anything. Besides, people resort to disguise and consequently that their motives of hiding of specific emotion usually demand insincere announcements concerning the led substitution. For example, if the person testing depression, does not want, that it as before considered thinking of suicide, it should not only neutralise grief expression on the person, but also figure pleasure. The smile as which one we already termed as the most abundant means of a softening of emotion, is as well the most abundant mask. Darwin the maiden has tried to explain the parent of this phenomenon. The muscle contractions indispensable for the image of a smile, are to the greatest degree distinct from the muscle contractions indispensable for expression of negative emotions. From the point of view of anatomy a smile is better masks implications of anger, disgust, grief or pavor in the heel of the person. And, certainly, frequently the character of a social situation which is giving reasons you to hiding by one of these emotions, will cause desire to figure on the person a friendly smile. People mask often one negative emotion another: for example, pavor anger or anger grief, and sometimes mask joy expression by the unfortunate.

All these three management methods – a softening, a modulation and falsification (which one includes simulation, decontamination and disguise) – can be applied in the situations causing people to check expression of the person, – at a running to regulations of mapping of emotions in crop, at a running to individual regulations of mapping, according to professional demands and needs of a present situation.

The parents on which one people check expressions of the person

Среда, 31 Окт 2012, 1:30 | Рубрика: Bastard countenances

We have invented the term of a rule of mapping for that specification statement that people learn, since children’s age, about necessity to control implications of specific emotions in specific condition. For example, in the USA adult men, town-dwellers of middle class, follow the rule  prohibiting to them to display the pavor in public. Women of the same social category to an entrance to spoilage or till a birth of children follow the rule prohibiting to them to display in public anger. Originally you assimilate mapping regulations when to you say that is possible and that cannot be made or when you study in it, watching and imitating behaviour of other people without obtaining of any special operating instructions. The assimilated regulations of mapping start to work as a habit is in many respects resembles machine driving. You do not think of the activities if only do not discover that have made a mistake. People reflect on what rule of mapping by it to use, only it having appeared in unusual condition for itself (mapping regulations depend on crop) or if cannot perceive, in what situation they have appeared, what should be their role and that from them expect.

According to the example of regulations of mapping given above – pavor for men, anger for women, – certain emotion should not be displayed in public. But happens that mapping regulations appear more specific in inhibit of any countenance only at embodiment of a certain role or in a certain social situation. For example, in the USA on weddings of quoters of middle class the bride can is open to cry or look sad, as well as her parents, but for the groom or his parents such behaviour is considered intolerable. Though usually set mappings prohibit to men to cry, grief implication admits admissible, but only not for the groom on characteristic wedding. Quite often set mappings improves not only the forbidden emotion, but also and emotion which one should exchange it. It can be demonstrated strange that at beauty contests of the winner, instead of lost, cry, when the name alternate «Ms. Something» is declared, but regulations of mapping of emotions for winners and lost are that. Lost at such competitions are bound to conceal the grief and to look though a little happy. Winners should care of to looking at all self-satisfied. Before effects will be declared, each participant, being afraid of ruin of hopes, directs all energies to to bursting into tears and saving a smile. When the winner at it necessity to restrain the teardrops at once disappears is declared – and they occur on the person.

Mapping regulations not necessarily should levy the prohibition or a stringent restriction of implication of specific emotion, and can improve a level of its implication only. For example, the people who have come on funeral, should match up a level of expression of the trouble to a level of expression of trouble of other participants of this sad routine. Here, apparently, there is a certain graduation of expressions of trouble. We will guess that the death has subitaneously overtaken the man of medial years. If on funeral its secretary expresses on the person more than trouble, than his wife it will be an ambiguous hint on character of ratios with late. Instead it should express on the person smaller trouble, than the people who were with late in the lawful close relations.

We said also that mapping regulations depend and on crop of this or that company. These are the customs regulating countenances of all loyal members of yielded crop, a subculture or a social cl. Their role in public life is the principal, most abundant parent of that people check the countenances. The second parent of such control are individual regulations of mapping – the habits, appearing a yield idiosinkra-zy, typical for specific monogynopaedium. For example, the person can be inured since the childhood never to look angrily at the one who possesses authority, or never to look angrily per capita an opposite sex. Individual regulations of mapping can have also blanket enough character: hypocritical people customary excessively boost implications of any emotions; reserved people permanently try to save neutral expression on the person.

As we see, people check expressions of emotions on the person because of conditionalities which have deeply rooted in a company (mapping regulations in specific crop) or the idiosyncrasies which have been worked out by education (individual regulations of mapping) — One more parent of the control of countenances are professional demands. It is obvious that actors should be able control expressions of the person well. The same ability is necessary for diplomats, lawyers, sellers, politicians, doctors, nurses and, was possiblly, to teachers. It is not known, a leah is correlation between a select of similar occupations and available for people on vykami monitoring of countenances, it is not known also, in what level similar skills are worked out in learning process or in process of personal experience accumulating.

The following parent on which one people check countenances, is a need of a present situation. The locked offender stating the innocence, does not follow to regulations of mapping of the emotions, accepted in certain crop, neither to individual regulations of mapping of emotions, nor professional demands, – if only it is not the professional criminal. He lies, using words and expression of the person, is simple to salvage itself from punishment. The pickpocket should figure shutting surprise when it suffices for an arm on the person. The husband should smother a pleasure smile, meeting the mistress if this occurring happens in the presence of his wife.

Routinely person about whom say that it lies, is aimed to content any current demand. But all parents of the control guess a capability of untrue reports or the pass of reports. It is valid that the company more religiously denounces falsehood for the sake of personal advantage, than the falsehood caused by specific features of character or necessity of observance of professional demands or public conditionalities. However the word falsehood not always correctly maps that in these events happens. It guesses that  the relevant report is unique  is a report on true feeling which one bases the untrue report. But the untrue report also has great value if you know that it is false. Instead of terming this process by falsehood, to you followed it is better to term as its monitoring of the report because the falsehood in itself also can transmit the useful report.

During any time frames people do not check the report which one they spread, in reports there is no the ambiguity, the given information internally is consistent. It is sincere, or fair, communications. But there are moments when people try to conceal one report and to exchange its another. As a result of the report enlist the conflicting as one mirrors actual sense, and another – that the person wants to transmit or thinks that it should transmit. Both reports contain the information, both of them are relevant. We will guess, the person has endured a cafard and now, still being in a dejectedness, tries to conceal a sad countenance and to look moderate the joy. You will make an error, if solve that he rejoices, but you also will make an error, if will ignore its trying to look joy, after all it means that the person starts to feel better, or that he should not be trusted, or that he wants to make to you pleasant, or that you should not trouble about it too. But how to clarify, the report is checked or not? And if yes how to recognise and the report what the person feels, and the report on what the person actually does not feel? At first it is necessary to spend difference between existing management methods a countenance. It is is relevant, because when people check the report transmitted by the person, they make much more, than simply exchange ispytyvaemoju them emotion another which one they do not test.

Bastard countenances

Суббота, 27 Окт 2012, 2:46 | Рубрика: Bastard countenances

People consider that expressions of emotions on the person merit larger trust, than a word. Each of us can recollect an event when it was possible to it (or it seemed that was possible) to recognise falsity of words of the interlocutor, simply having looked at his face. However practically each of us happened will trick expressions of emotions on another’s person. «The falsehood of submission» when the person of the person demonstrated any sense, which one as you later learnt could lead you into error, he actually did not test. Or it could be «the falsehood of concealment» when the person did not demonstrate any traces of on the person that he felt actually. And «convincingly lie the person» can not only actors or politicians. At times it try to make practically all.

People learn to check and mask countenances. To children explain not only about what they should not speak, but also on the person they should not admit what expressions: «do not look at me so angrily», «Remove this expression from the person!» Speech can go not only about the prohibition, but also about giving to the person of shutting expressions, is customary by means of a smile: «Smile to that nice man; he wants to help you». Long before an entrance to adult life the majority of people already know, properly to control countenances, to conform to company requirements; how to check reports which one they direct the person, as well as by the own words.

To check expressions of emotions on the person it is uneasy. The majority of people control countenances, but make it

Farly it is not ideal. People lie words, than the person (and the person is customarier, than skew field motions) more customary. Was interquartile, it happens that people carry heavy responsibility for the words, than for countenances. That you say, instead of that you express on the person is more often commented.

To you
to watch
for by the own words when you speak  easier, than to watch of expressions  of the person. Countenances can be very short-term, that is occur and disappear for fractions of a second. In case of usage of words you can easily deliver yourselves to the place of the person gaining your report and to hear all that he hears. With countenances all appears was much more difficult. You can hear the speech, control each word, but you cannot see expression of the person as to you of it simply it is not yielded. Instead it is necessary to rely on less exact information source that happens at you on the person, – on the feedback ensured with your front muscles.

to falsify
words, than countenances. On-: all learnt to tell, all of us possess  enough high stockage of words and knowledge of regulations of grammar. Exist not only orphographic, but also encyclopaedic dictionaries. You can write the text of the protrusion in advance. You can read beforehand it aloud. Your friend who is present on this rehearsal, can make the useful critical remarks concerning words used by you and phrases. But try to make the same with the countenances. At the disposal of your critic it will appear a few terms, allowing to explain that you abnormally demonstrate on the person; its judgements will be grounded only on suspicions and intuitive guesses. And such unsharp criticism hardly will help to import really indispensable changes to expressions of your person. At your instruction there is no «a dictionary of countenances». You never learnt how to talk to the help of the person just as you learnt to talk to the help of words. You learnt not to what muscles should be used for mapping of this or that emotion, and only to that you should check external appearance of your person.

Much easier
to kill
that you say, than that you demonstrate on the person. One of the parents of it was already termed: fugacity of countenances. But there is also more severe  parent. The countenances originating in experience of emotion, are consensual (though it is possible to influence them), and your words – are not present. We will guess, you go along the street and to you, loudly barking, the major dog of a furious type runs up. From pavor your heart starts to fight more promptly, breath becomes frequent, in your skew field about other physiological changes radiate also, and muscles of your person contract, therefore your person acquires one of the typical expressions demonstrated in chapter 4. These changes of your person and a skew field originate automatically, in many respects that we routinely term as speculations or reasonings. But there is no similar automatically worked out, consensual mere verbiage which one you could say in such situation though you quite could unclose from amazement of companies or cry. Words are not said under the influence of the same internal gears which one cause palpitation increase, rising of a respiration rate and abbreviation of front muscles. When we say that these responses are consensual, we do not mean that they cannot be checked. You can enlarge frequency of the breath at any moment when it want, in the same way, as you can "make" any person voluntarily. However the capability to falsification of any symptoms does not mean that there are no situations in which one you begin to breathe more often not voluntarily, and under the influence of any emotion. When you are frightened, you can keep control of the breath, but it means that you will struggle with inverse pulses and to try to cope with them. It will be a control. The same it is possible to tell and about countenances.

As people check countenances less and have less capabilities to watch, falsify or kill them, than the words the assaying of countenances can ensure the correct determination of real senses of the person. But as expressions of the person as people can kill consensual responses of the person learn to check people or figure on the person what they do not feel actually countenances can quite trick you. During lecture of a countenance there can be more truthful, than words (certainly, there are special indicatings on usage of insincere words; their obvious examples casual stipulations) can minister. But the person can is even stronger lead into error, than words.

How to be? How to distinguish the true implications of emotions from the false? A leah it is possible to note implications of those senses which one the person tries to conceal? The majority of people is used for this purpose by following simple regulations:

 Eyes more often «tell truth».

 If the person says words that he tests any emotion, but does not display any emotions you should not believe words. For example, the person can say that he tests anger or pleasure, but thus looks absolutely passionless.

 If the person states negative emotion tested by it, but thus demonstrates a smile upon the face you can check either to its words, or its smile. All will depend on a situation. For example, if the person says that he is afraid of the dentist, but thus smiles, you interpret a smile not as denial of words and as the social commenting and believe words. If women »disappoints hopes of the man, makes it easily and easy, and he with a smile states that is awfully it is angered, such words should not cause trust.

 If the person does not put the senses into words, but demonstrates them on the person you believe that speaks his face, specially if in words it negates emotions tested by it. For example, if the person speaks: «I am not surprised not so», but looks surprised you believe that he tests surprise.

Was interquartile, these regulations are valid not always. To perceive differences of meriting and not reliable expressions of persons, at first it is necessary to consider the parents on which one people check expressions of the person, and those methods which one they for this purpose use.


Среда, 24 Окт 2012, 2:09 | Рубрика: the Practical work for recognition of countenances

Now, when you were acquainted with typical countenances for each of six emotions, you are ready to practical application of the learnt material. Up until that time we demonstrated photographs only two persons – Patricias and John. But now, looking at new people, you will see, how countenances at miscellaneous people slightly change. If everything that you have learnt in each of the previous heads, you want to anchor practical skills which one will allow not to waste time on considering of each process step of an estimate of emotions it is necessary for you to prolong practice with persons new to you.

Cut photographs from pages 237-263. That they did not appear through, photographs can be pasted on board chunks. In this case do not forget to write down the numbers pointed on back surfaces of photographs, on a gummed board. Numbers are necessary to compare your answers to the right answers given in the end of this chapter.

When you will cut all photographs, intermix them and suppose before yourself a shot, a face side up. Cut page 266; it is necessary for tracing of your estimates. Further fulfil following activities:

1. Take the upper photograph so that not to see it (you can suppose a card batch hardly away from itself not to see persons in photographs, but to have a capability, without turning a head, to take each time on one photograph).

2. Close down eyes and hold down a photograph on some spacing interval.

3. Unclose eyes and promptly them close down. Once!

4. Value emotion in the seen photograph.

5. Unclose eyes, record the photograph number in the maiden column of the table of answers, and your express estimate of emotion – in the second column.

6. Look at a photograph within several secs and if your judgement is modified, record your new estimate in the third column.

7. Do not spy in answers. Suppose a photograph the person hill up near to itself on other side from the first glass. Take a new photograph and iterate jobs of points 1-6.

8. After an estimate of all images check the answers with the answers given in the end of this chapter.

9. If your express estimate was correct, congratulate itself and transfer to a following snapshot.

10. If your express estimate has appeared incorrect, but the second estimate was correct, take a photograph and some times promptly look at it, periodically closing down eyes. Try to perceive that you in it have not noted. Will put it aside and after you view all shot of photographs, clarify, a leah your errors concerned at express estimates to any one emotion or at once to some If you made an error at an estimate only one-two emotions, return back and anew read applicable chapters. If your errors were uniformly arranged between several emotions, transfer to point 12.

11. If your express estimate was incorrect, and the second estimate has appeared correct, will put a photograph aside and transfer to the following. Each time when you detect an error, add such photographs in a separate shot. Having validated all photographs, spot on this shot, a leah the majority of your errors has been admitted at an estimate of one-two emotions. If yes, analyze photographs and return to learning of the necessary heads. Compare identified photograph everyone abnormally by you to a picture corresponding to it in the book. If your errors have been dispersed enough uniformly on all emotions primely compare abnormally identified by a photo-grafiju with a picture corresponding to it and try to spot, why you have made an error.

12. After you will validate correctness of all estimates, intermix photographs and fulfil exercise once again.

Do not think that you will manage to spot correctly from the first emotions on the majority of photographs. Was interquartile, more than halves of your estimates will be erratic. Do not lose courage. The effect is attained by practice! Was possiblly, you will need to spend an estimate of photographs from three to ten times, learning each time a material of the applicable heads. Do not fulfil exercise more than two-three times at one time. It is desirable to make a time-out, sufficient that you could forget any photographs.

If you read the book, without having firm notion to fulfil this exercise transfer to the following chapter. In chapter 10 you learn about bastard countenances, but promptly will discover that cannot use the information containing in it, without having learnt to fulfil correctly exercise from this chapter. Solve. Was possiblly, to you will enough read this information, without trying to work out practical skills.


1. Surprise, as is shown in fig. 11.

2. Surprise, as on fig. 11. Mark that horizontal folds on such person appear thin enough in comparison with demonstrated on photographs № 1 or № 3. Mark also that the mouth is slightly opened only slightly, as on fig. 9А.

3. Surprise, as on fig. 9А.

4. Surprise, as on fig. 11. If you term it as pavor or a pavor and surprise speed key it will not be a gross error. Roth on this snapshot is really close to expressing any pavor. Compare it to a mouth on fig. 16. It is similar To what mouth: demonstrated on a snapshot on the right or at the left? Actually it represents something an average. Eyes and eyelids on this person – an excellent example of expression of surprise. Brows – a forehead also clearly exclaim surprise. Compare photographs № 4 and № 11 and mark differences on the person between expression of pavor at this person and expression of its surprise. Also compare a photograph № 4 about fig. 20Е (a pavor and surprise speed key) for that confirmation that the photograph № 4 demonstrates surprise, instead of a surprise and pavor speed key.

5. Surprise, as on fig. 11. Roth is only slightly slightly opened, as on fig. 9А. The sclera is not visible above, below an iris of the eye, but typical expression of surprise is demonstrated by brows – a forehead and the heel of the person.

6. Surprise, as on fig. 11. The sclera is not visible above, below an iris of the eye as eyes are deeply. Typical expression of surprise is demonstrated by brows – a forehead and the heel of the person.

7. Surprise, as on fig. 9. If you have termed this expression by pavor, that, was interquartile because brows of this person are concaved less. They are drawn more out, than at customary expression of surprise. Mark that the surprised brows – a forehead here are demonstrated: brows are not brought together, in between there are erect wrinkles, and horizontal folds go through all forehead.

8. Interrogative surprise, as on fig. 10А. Surprise is expressed by brows – a forehead and eyes – eyelids, thus the heel of the person remains neutral. Compare to a photograph № 3.

9. Pavor, as on fig. 22А. Compare this photograph to a photograph № 2. In a photograph № 9 brows are brought together and uplifted, but the level of their convergence is insignificant. Roth in a photograph № 9 is look-alike demonstrated on fig. 18Б.

10. Pavor, as on fig. 22. The pavor here is mirrored in the heel of the person very feeblly, it is most similar to pavor which one expresses the person on fig. 18А. Compare it about fig. 9А and mark here a feeble hint on mouth extension that points light implication of pavor, instead of surprise.

11. Pavor, as on fig. 22Б. Compare to a photograph № 4.

12. Pavor, as on fig. 18Б.

13. Pavor. This expression is attained by usage of devices about fig. 18А (the heel of the person) and fig. 22А (brows – a forehead). Brows are brought together, but not uplifted, as it should be at pavor.

14. Light pavor, as on fig. 18А. The Heel of the person demonstrates original signs of extension of labiums. The field of brows – a forehead demonstrates original signs of a heaving of brows, but without a hint on their convergence. The strongest implication of pavor is the strain in the field of eyes – a century.

15. Disgust-contempt – both answers will be correct. In this photograph wrinkles at a nose and reduced eyes, as on fig. 24Б, and labiums, as on fig. 25В are visible.

16. Disgust, as on fig. 23Б.

17. Disgust, as on fig. 24А. If you term it as a disgust and anger speed key it also will be the right answer because brows – a forehead look a little ambiguously. A fold between brows and a level of a ptosis of brows can point anger presence. Disgust is accurately expressed by the heel of the person and lower eyelids.

18. Disgust, as on fig. 24А.

19. Disgust-contempt, as on fig. 25В. Both answers will be correct.

20. Contempt, as on fig. 25А. Compare to photographs № 32 and №49.

21. Disgust, as on fig. 24Б. If you have termed it as anger, that, was interquartile, because of the gained static cue. At this person of a brow are allocated low enough. Validate its neutral expression demonstrated in a photograph № 52.

22. Contempt, as on fig. 25А. If you have termed it as anger or an anger and contempt speed key, validate the answer on a photograph № 21.

23. Light anger, as on fig. 36Б. Anger signs are hardly perceptible, they can be noted at comparing of this expression of anger with a neutral countenance of this person as it is made on fig. 53. In anger of a brow are slightly lowered and brought slightly together. Labiums are slightly tense. The most obvious cue is the stare and intense lower eyelids.

24. Anger, as on fig. 42Б. The angered mouth can accept one of many varieties of a "rectangular" mouth. Compare this mouth with demonstrated on photographs № 25, № 27 and № 34.

25. Anger, as on fig. 42Б. Look the commenting to a photograph № 24.

26. Anger, as on fig. 42А.

27. Anger. In this person anger implications, as on fig. 36Б (brows – a forehead) and on fig. 42Б (eyes and the heel of the person) combine. Brows are lowered, but brought together feeblly enough; the gritted cogs as it happens in events of implication of anger to an open mouth are visible. Look the commenting to a photograph № 24.

28. Anger. This special combination of devices of implication of anger has not been demonstrated in the main photographs. Brows – a forehead, upper eyelids and a stare of eyes are similar to what we saw on fig. 37. Lower eyelids Roth is not strained and uplifted resembles mouths on fig. 34А and fig. 34Б, but is less strained. It is more similar to a mouth demonstrated on fig. 57А.

29. Anger, as on fig. 36Б. If you here have made an error and have termed it as pavor, that, means, have not managed to distinguish wimbling accusatory glance from the frightened; compare to a photograph № 9. On a phot grafii № 29 brows are lowered (but are not brought together); lower eyelids are strained, and the labrum is slightly pressed to the lower.

30. Pleasure, as on fig. 50Б.

31. Pleasure, as on fig. 50Б.

32. Light pleasure, as on fig. 45А. If you have termed it as contempt compare a photograph №32 to photographs № 20 and № 49.

33. Pleasure, as on fig. 50А.

34. Pleasure, as on fig. 50Б. If you have termed it as surprise or a pleasure and surprise speed key, that, was possiblly, because of the form of labiums in this photograph. To be convinced that such form of labiums does not imply surprise in the heel of the person, it is possible, having compared this photograph to a photograph № 46.

35. Pleasure, as on fig. 43Б and fig. 44Б.

36. Pleasure, as on fig. 50Б.

37. Grief, as on fig. 54А. Pay attention that the stare is routed downwards, mouth L-steels are lowered, and internal utolki brows are slightly uplifted and brought together.

38. Grief, as on fig. 54. A good example of how brows are brought together and their internal L-steels are uplifted.

39. Light grief, as on fig. 51А and fig. 52А. Do not worry, if you have yielded a failing response, and congratulate yourself if your answer was correct. Symptoms here are expressed very feeblly.

The delicate hint on sad brows, prjadajushchie the triangular form to upper eyelids is watched only. The stare also is routed downwards. On an underlip grief traces can be guessed, but this impression is not indisputable.

40. Grief, as on fig. 52. Pay attention to the brought together and slightly uplifted L-steels of the brows which have attached the triangular form to upper eyelids. The stare also is routed downwards. Though mouth L-steels seem lowered, (the photograph № 54) says the assaying of a neutral countenance of this person that this impression forms because of the special form of his lips.

41. Grief, but displayed more finely, than on any other image. Whence you know, what this person looks sad? What points it? Close down on photographs of an eye and a forehead the arm. A leah looks field of a mouth sad? No. Close down the heel of the person in a photograph the arm, and you will see that the grief is expressed by eyes – eyelids and brows – a forehead. Dogs here are slightly uplifted that causes feeble rise of lower eyelids. Internal L-steels of brows are a little uplifted and retightened up, but it is not appreciable by appearance of brows in a photograph of this person; it is appreciable by the form of districts of a skin under his eyebrows. Mark that these districts have the triangular form, as on fig. 51 And.

42. Grief, as on fig. 45Б. Roth yields a delicate hint on grief presence.

43. Grief, as on fig. 54. Even in spite of the fact that labiums are moved slightly apart, the grief expresses in let down L-steels of a mouth.

44. Grief, as on fig. 52. This photograph demonstrates that at some people abbreviation of muscles, responsible for convergence and a heaving of brows, does not modify a standing of brows; but you can see an effort of these muscles collecting in a node under a skin on a forehead. Mark also the triangular form of districts of a skin under brows. Pay attention to the layout chart of folds on a forehead which one occurs at some people when their brows express grief. Under the form these folds resemble a Greek letter an omega and consequently them term omegoobraznymi.

45. A pleasure and surprise speed key, as on fig. 46А.

46. A pleasure and surprise speed key, as on fig. 46А.

47. A pavor and surprise speed key, as on fig. 20Д. Compare the person in this photograph to the scared person of the same person in a photograph № 14. The surprise device to the commixed expression of emotions in a photograph № 47 is attached by brows – a forehead. In a photograph № 47 there is a same scared mouth as on fig. 15А, and in a photograph № 14 scared mouths it is look-alike to a mouth demonstrated on fig. 15Б.

48. A pavor and surprise speed key, as on fig. 20Е. Pavor expression the heel of the person (attaches fig. 15А), and a surprise device – brows – a forehead and eyes – eyelids. Widely open eyes as at surprise, can express and pavor.

49. A pleasure and contempt speed key, as on fig. 47В. Compare the person on this this photographs to the person of the same person in a photograph № 32, expressing light pleasure, and the person in a photograph № 20, expressing contempt. A mouth standing equally and at contempt expression, and at expression of a speed key of pleasure and contempt. Pleasure implication in whom the commixed expression is ensured at the expense of a heaving of dogs and throat of eyes caused by it.

50. An anger and disgust speed key, as on fig. 39А. Compare this person to the person in a photograph № 23 where the person expresses pavor without disgust (compare the heels of the person on these images).

51. A grief and pavor speed key. This type of the commixed expression of emotions was not demonstrated before. Grief here expressing brows – a forehead and eyes – eyelids (fig. 60), and pavor – the heel of the person (fig. 15А). Slightly uplifted eyelids can speak about light contempt. On fig. 55 other expression of a speed key of pavor and grief where the pavor was mirrored in the heel of the person by means of more expanded scared mouth (fig. 15Б) has been demonstrated.

52. Neutral.

53. Neutral.

54. Neutral.